Tuesday, September 3, 2019
Vocabulary :: Communication, Language
Vocabulary is very important to everyday reading because it is all of the words in a language. According to Bursuck and Damer (2010) students Ã¢â¬Å"learn to decode harder text, they are more likely to encounter words that are not part of their oral languageÃ¢â¬ (p. 231). Being familiar with words and the meaning of the word assists studentÃ¢â¬â¢s fluency as well as comprehension. According to the National Institute of Literacy (2007) vocabulary is Ã¢â¬Å"words used in speech and print to communicateÃ¢â¬ (p. 14). Vocabulary can be divided into two categories Ã¢â¬Å"oral or spoken words and written wordsÃ¢â¬ (National Institute of Literacy, 2007, p. 14). The National Institute of Literacy (2007), agree with Bursuck and Damer (2010), stating that Ã¢â¬Å"vocabulary knowledge is important to reading because the oral and written words promote comprehension and communicationÃ¢â¬ (p. 14). Since vocabulary is extremely important Pullen, Tuckwiller, Konold, Maynard, & Coyne, 20 10 used a Ã¢â¬Å"three tier model for students at risk for a reading disabilityÃ¢â¬ (p. 110). Pullen et al. (2010) states that vocabulary development occurs through incidental learning and home environment before formal schoolingÃ¢â¬ (p. 111) The intervention created by Pullen et al. (2010) was meant to increase studentsÃ¢â¬â¢ vocabulary of at risk students. The intervention (2010) participants Ã¢â¬Å"were 224 first grade students in elementary schools in a diverse population and moderate percentage of students in socio-economic statusÃ¢â¬ (p. 114). The intervention (2010) itself created by ___________________ was a three-tier system: Tier 1 consisted of classroom instruction and Ã¢â¬Å"students who do not respond to tier 1 will receive tier 2 instruction and tier 3 is the most intensive level and if student do not respond to this level they are referred to a special education evaluationÃ¢â¬ (p. 114). To identify students who may be at risk of disability, the intervention (2010) used the PPVT-4 as a standardized test. Pullen et al. (2010) used the test to asses the baseline level Ã¢â¬Å"of receptive vocabulary and identify participants as either at risk of not for reading failureÃ¢â¬ (p. 115). The authors of the intervention (2010) selected the PPVT-4 because Ã¢â¬Å"it demonstrated reliability, indicating that is a sound measure for measuring receptive vocabularyÃ¢â¬ (p. 115). For a post-test, the authors (2010) used a researcher-developed measure to asses studentsÃ¢â¬â¢ acquisition of target words used in the intervention (p. 115). Pullen et al. (2010) had a three-tier system where tier 1 and tier 2 were designed Ã¢â¬Å"around two story books appropriate for first grade studentsÃ¢â¬ (p.